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Managing Dependencies

The program you write will depend on other code that other people have written. This guide will teach you how to install, use and upgrade dependencies for your web application. It covers ruby, javascript and php.

After working through this guide you will be able to:

1 Dependencies

The program you write will depend on other code that other people have written. Some of this code has been packaged into operating systems or applications: Linux, Postgres, Apache, nginx, and so on.

But you also use smaller pieces of code that you include in your source code or link to your code after compiling. These dependencies are called libraries, packages or gems in different programming languages.

We will discuss six different systems:

  • Package management for the operating system:
    • apt a package manager for Linux (used in debian, ubuntu, and several other distributions)
    • brew a package manager for mac os
    • choco a package manager for windows
  • Package management for a programming language:
    • gem and bundler for ruby
    • npm for javascript and node.js
    • composer for php


The site collects information for many package management systems, it's a central place to look for software to use.

1.2 dynamiclly linked libraries

Why do we need to look at apt, brew or choco? Isn't the package manager for my main programing language enough?

In many cases using php-only or ruby-only libraries will be enough. But sometimes the libraries we use in our dynamic languages use other code originally written in c or c++.

The image processing library imagemagick is a good example. If you want to use the ruby gem rmagick to edit images you will find that to install the gem, you first need to install the program and the library "ImageMagick". You do this using apt or brew or the windows installer with dynamic link libraries.

The result of installing imagemagick with brew is the file libMagickCore-6.Q16.2.dylib and two other libraries. These are libraries that can be used by multiple programs on your computer when they are dynamically linked to those programs.

When installing the ruby gem with gem install rmagick you get the following output:

Building native extensions.  This could take a while...

Sometimes you need to set include paths when installing gem, e.g.:

> gem install eventmachine 
... error messages ...
In file included from binder.cpp:20:
./project.h:116:10: fatal error: 'openssl/ssl.h' file not found
#include <openssl/ssl.h>
> brew install openssl
> gem install eventmachine -- --with-cppflags=-I/usr/local/opt/openssl/include

1.3 package names and a central database

To enable easy installation of a dependency with just one command we need a central database that contains the information on all available packages. These databases typically also offer a web page with search functionality:

  • apt packages are kept on ftp servers and are not searchable there. other sources can be added to /etc/apt/sources.list
  • homebrew/core is a repository on github, but other "taps" (sources of packges) can be added
  • choco
  • for ruby
  • for javascript
  • for php and composer Package names need to be unique. Version numbers are often given out according to semantic versioning.

1.4 How to install

  • apt-get install imagemagick
  • brew install imagemagick
  • choco install imagemagick
  • gem install rmagick
  • npm install imagemagick
  • composer install imagemagick - does not work, needs PECL

1.5 Where is the code installed?

All the package managers distinguish between installing globally - for all users and projects on a computer and installing locally. This might mean installing in a way that only one user can use, or it might mean installing into a projects directory.

When you deploy your project to a production server you again face this question: should the dependencies be installed globally or locally?

1.6 Security considerations

Downloading and using software is always dangerous. With a package management system a lot of downloads happen automatically. So we want to make sure the software we download is really what it is supposed to be.

A package management system can offer different methods of making it more secure: * comparing checksums of the code to make sure the downloaded package contains the same code as the original package * cryptographically signing the code in the package and checking this signature before installing. This ensures that only the original author of the package can release new versions.

2 Dependency Hell

For a big web project you will be using a lot of dependencies. This will lead to two problems (here shown in a ruby projects with gems):

  1. dependency resolution: gem A depends on version 1.1 of gem C, while gem B wants at least version 1.5. You need to find the right version for every gem in your project so that they actually all fit together
  2. different installation: when deploying to a production server, or even just when sharing code with other developers you need to make sure that the same constellation of gems and versions is used on every machine

If this all goes horribly wrong you are in "dependency hell": you can't find the right versions of gems to make your code work again on a new machine or after an update.

2.1 Escape from Depencency Hell


Bundler is the name of the ruby tool that solves this problem for ruby. Bundler is itself a gem, so you install it with gem install bundler. Beware: the command you will be using called bundle, not bundler.

This is how it works: In every ruby project you write a Gemfile in which you define which gems and (to a certain degree) which versions you want. When you run bundle install bundler will:

  • read the Gemfile,
  • pick out compatible versions of all the gems and their dependencies (if possible),
  • install all these gems
  • write Gemfile.lock

The lock-file contains a complete list of all the gems necessary for your project, and their version numbers. This also includes dependencies of you dependencies, that you don't even knew you were using! The version numbers are now locked down, and will not change.

When deploying to a new development machine or the production server, you run bundle install and the exact same versions are now installed.

All modern package managment systems offer a form of this solution, with

  • one file that is written by hand that contains your wishes
  • another file that is created by the package manager, that contains the exact version numbers

2.2 Defining Versions

When definig your wishes for dependencies you can specify which versions should be used. But don't overdo it! The package manager does a good job picking versions. If you specify every version number by hand you are doing too much work. And you are potentially locking yourself in to old versions.

Some examples of the different ways of specifying version number and source in a ruby Gemfile:

# Gemfile
source ''

ruby '2.1.5'

gem 'devise'
gem 'rails', '4.2.5'
gem 'uglifier', '>= 1.3.0'
gem 'coffee-rails', '~> 4.1.0'

Giving an exact version number fixes that version, so only version 4.2.5 of rails will be allowed here. Using the "greater-or-equal-than" sign you can require any version greater or equal to 1.3.0. So 1.2.7 is forbidden, but 1.3.2 or 1.4.0 or 2.2.0 is allowed.

The arrow ~> will only allow an increase in the last (right most) number, so ~> 4.1.0 does allow 4.1.17 but not 4.2. This is called a pessimistic version constraint, read more about it in the rubygem documentation.

There now is a common standard on how to use version numbers called semantic versioning. In short: Use three numbers for your version number: MAJOR dot MINOR dot PATCH. For example 3.1.0.

  • a new '''major''' version number means incompatible API changes,
  • a new '''minor''' version number means added functionality in a backwards-compatible manner, and
  • a new '''patch''' version means backwards-compatible bug fixes.

But not all projects adher to this standard yet.

2.3 Keeping Up To Date

Let's assume you list 12 dependencies in your project. This might result in 36 dependencies being installed in all. Now assume each dependency releases a new version once a year. You have to be prepared for updating several dependencies each month!

To update the versions you need to override the lock-file and allow a change in version numbers.

For each dependency system we discussed there are services out there that will tell you about new version or -- even more important -- new security updates for your dependencies.

3 Dependencies always imply Risk

Using a third party library will make you more productive today. But it could well harm you in the long run:

These examples were taken from a longer article that discusses ways to minimize the risk.

4 Quick Start Guides

4.1 apt for Linux

The Advanced Package Tool, or APT, handles the installation and removal of software on the Debian, Ubuntu and other Linux distributions. It installs both complete programs (like apache in the example below) and libraries (like libssl in the example below) that can be used to build programs.

apt install apache2  
apt install libssl-dev

The software is downloaded from a file system (e.g. a DVD) or an FTP server. Each Linux distribution keeps their own server. You can search for software with apt search

$ apt search xml
xmlto/xenial 0.0.28-0.1 amd64
  XML-to-any converter

xmltoman/xenial,xenial 0.4-3 all
  simple XML to man converter

xmltooling-schemas/xenial,xenial 1.5.6-2 all
  XML schemas for XMLTooling

The software is installed into the usual folder used in UNIX (see also the Filesystem Hierarchy Standard (FHS):

  • /etc for configuration files
  • /bin and /lib for essential binaries and libraries
  • /usr/bin and /usr/lib for non-essential (=most) binaries and libraries

You can find out what exactly got installed by running the dpkg command:

$ dpkg -L libmagickcore

As apt installs many types of software, there are many ways to use this software:

  • command line tools: you just run them on the command line, like wget
  • daemons: you start and stop them with the service command, like service apache2 start
  • c libraries: include the header-file in your own c program, like #include <PCSC/winscard.h> and then link the library
  • other libraries: depends on the programming language

4.2 brew for mac os

Homebrew is a package manager for Mac OS. It builds software from source, applying patches to make the software mac compatible.

It installs both complete programs (like postgresql in the example below) and libraries (like libyaml in the example below) that can be used to build programs.

brew install postgresql  
brew install libyaml

You can search for software with brew search:

$ brew search xml
homebrew/php/php54-wbxml               libxml++3 
homebrew/php/php54-xmldiff             libxml2 ✔ 
homebrew/php/php55-wbxml               libxmlsec1

Homebrew is a git repository in /usr/local/Homebew. It installs software into /usr/local/Cellar and then creates links from /usr/local/bin or /usr/local/lib as appropriate.

You can find out what exactly got installed by running the brew list command:

$ brew list libyaml
/usr/local/Cellar/libyaml/0.1.7/lib/ (2 other files)

$ brew list postgresql

The executable programs in the last example can be found as links in /usr/local/bin/

lrwxr-xr-x  user  clusterdb -> ../Cellar/postgresql/9.5.4_1/bin/clusterdb
lrwxr-xr-x  user  createdb -> ../Cellar/postgresql/9.5.4_1/bin/createdb

As brew installs many types of software, there are many ways to use this software:

  • command line tools: you just run them on the command line, like wget
  • daemons: you start and stop them with the service command, like brew services start postgresql
  • c libraries: include the header-file in your own c program, like #include <yaml.h> and then link the library
  • other libraries: depends on the programming language

4.3 choco for windows

4.4 gem and bundler for ruby

Libraries for ruby are called gems and can be installed using the command lin tool gem:

gem install pg

The gems are stored on a central server You can use gem search or the web interface to find gems.

$ gem search xml
klarna-xmlrpc (0.2.1)
koara-xml (0.13.0)
latexml-ruby (0.0.2)
libxml-ext (0.4.2)

Gems will normally be installed "globally" = in a way that they can be used by several users for several projects.

  • e.g. C:/RailsInstaller/Ruby2.2.0/lib/ruby/gems/2.2.0 on Windows
  • e.g. /usr/lib/ruby/2.3.0/ on Linux

You can find out where a gem is installed by using gem which.

On many machines rvm - the ruby version manager - is used to switch between different versions of the programming language. Then each version of the language has it's own set of gems, and the paths include the word rvm:

  • /usr/local/rvm/gems/ruby-2.2.3/gems/pg-0.18.4/lib/pg.rb Unix, global rvm, ruby version 2.2.3, gem pg for postgresql
  • /Users/USERNAME/.rvm/rubies/ruby-2.3.0/gems/pg-0.18.4/lib/pg.rb Windows, rvm installed for one user only, ruby version 2.3.0, gem pg for postgresql

To use gems in your ruby project you will write a Gemfile where you list the gems (and maybe the versions) that you need, e.g.:

source ''

gem 'activerecord'
gem 'pg'
gem 'mechanize'

To install all the gems and their dependencies run the command bundle. The bundler will find a constellation of dependencies and versions that work well together, and write this information to Gemfile.lock.

In a non-rails project you load the gems in the ruby files that need them with require:

require 'active_record'

In a rails project this is not necessary, the gems are loaded by rails.

When using git with ruby you add Gemfile and Gemfile.lock to the repository.

4.5 npm for javascript and node.js

Libraries for javascript are called packages and can be installed using the command line tool npm:

npm install should 

You can search for packages using npm search or the web search interface at

$ npm search xml
muxml-cli         Streaming XML parser and formatter      =t1st3
mxmlc             Node.js module to build ActionScript    =meekgeek
naive-request     Very simple xmlhttp library for the…    =kev_nz
named-items-rss   RSS feed generator.                     =jamierevans

Packages will normally be installed "locally" in the sub-folder node_modules. If you want to install them globally add -g to the command:

npm install -g grunt

To use packages in your javascript project you will write a package.json file where you list the packages (and maybe the versions) that you need. To create the first version of this file use npm init. Then you can use the --save option to install packages and at the same time add them to the file:

$ npm install --save should
my_first_javascript_project@1.0.0 /Users/USERNAME/mfjsp
└─┬ should@11.1.1
  ├── should-equal@1.0.1
  ├── should-format@3.0.2
  ├── should-type@1.4.0
  ├── should-type-adaptors@1.0.1
  └── should-util@1.0.0

$ cat package.json
  "name": "my_first_javascript_project",
  "version": "1.0.0",
  "description": "reimplementation of leftpad",
  "main": "index.js",
  "scripts": {
    "test": "echo \"Error: no test specified\" && exit 1"
  "author": "Maria Musterfrau",
  "license": "ISC",
  "dependencies": {
    "should": "^11.1.1"

In a serverside node.js project load the packages with require. Before ECMAScript2015:

const http = require('http');

In ECMAScript2015: import { http } from 'http';

To fix the exact versions of all dependencies, use npm shrinkwrap. This command creates a file npm-shrinkwrap.json.

When using git with a node.js project you add packages.json and npm-shrinkwrap.json to the repository, and node_modules to .gitignore.

4.6 composer and packagist for php

One package manager for php is composer. It can be used to install packages with composer require:

$ composer require friendsofphp/php-cs-fixer
Using version ^1.12 for friendsofphp/php-cs-fixer
./composer.json has been created
Loading composer repositories with package information
Updating dependencies (including require-dev)
  - Installing sebastian/diff (1.4.1)
    Downloading: 100%

  - Installing symfony/stopwatch (v3.1.6)
    Loading from cache
  - Installing friendsofphp/php-cs-fixer (v1.12.3)
    Downloading: 100%

Writing lock file
Generating autoload files

It installs the software and it's dependencies into the subfolder vendor. It also generates a composer.json and a composer.lock file.

To install packages globally use global:

$ composer global require friendsofphp/php-cs-fixer

To use the packages in you php script you only need to require one file: autoload.php. Then you can start using the classes loaded from the packages:

require __DIR__ . '/vendor/autoload.php';

$log = new Monolog\Logger('name');

When using git with a php project you add composer.json and composer.lock to the repository, and vendor to .gitignore.

A word of warning: there are two older levels of dependencies:

5 References